Information provided by the Child Welfare Information Gateway as well as Darkness to Light’s Stewards of Children. Additional information is available online at:  and


Neglect is the failure of a parent, guardian, or other caregiver to provide for a child’s basic needs. Neglect may be:

    • Physical (e.g., failure to provide necessary food or shelter, or lack of appropriate supervision)
    • Medical (e.g., failure to provide necessary medical or mental health treatment)
    • Educational (e.g., failure to educate a child or attend to special education needs)
    • Emotional (e.g., inattention to a child’s emotional needs, failure to provide psychological care, or permitting the child to use alcohol or other drugs)

Physical abuse

Physical abuse is non-accidental physical injury (ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death) as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting (with a hand, stick, strap, or other object), burning, or otherwise harming a child, that is inflicted by a parent, caregiver, or other person who has responsibility for the child. Such injury is considered abuse regardless of whether the caregiver intended to hurt the child. Physical discipline, such as spanking or paddling, is not considered abuse as long as it is reasonable and causes no bodily injury to the child.

Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse is:

    • Any sexual act between an adult and minor, or between two minors, when one exerts power over the other.
    • Forcing, coercing or persuading a child to engage in any type of sexual act.
    • It also includes non-contact acts such as exhibitionism, exposure to pornography, voyeurism, and communicating in a sexual manner by phone or internet.

Exhibitionism: exposing one’s genitals on purpose to attract attention or to cause sexual interest in another person.

Voyeurism: getting sexual arousal from looking at others’ naked bodies and genitals, or at others’ sexual acts. This observation often takes place from a hidden location.

Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) : any sexual activity involving a child for which something of value is given or promised.

Child pornography is any form of media that shows sexual activity with a child and includes:

    • writings
    • videos
    • magazines
    • photos
    • sculptures
    • drawings
    • cartoons
    • animations
    • sound recordings
    • video games

Emotional abuse (psychological abuse)

Emotional abuse (or psychological abuse) is a pattern of behavior that impairs a child’s emotional development or sense of self-worth. This may include constant criticism, threats, or rejection, as well as withholding love, support, or guidance. Emotional abuse is often difficult to prove, an therefore, child protective services may not be able to intervene without evidence of harm or mental injury to the child. Emotional abuse is almost always present when other types of maltreatment are identified.


Abandonment is now defined in many states as a form of neglect. In general, a child is considered to be abandoned when the parent’s identity or whereabouts are unknown, the child has been left alone in circumstances where the child suffers serious harm, or the parent has failed to maintain contact with the child or provide reasonable support for a specified period of time. Some states have enacted laws—often called safe haven laws—that provide safe places for parents to relinquish newborn infants.